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Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland.; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. King Henry II PLANTAGENET, of England[1]

Male 1133 - 1189  (56 years)


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  • Name Henry II PLANTAGENET 
    Title Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland.; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. 
    Prefix King 
    Suffix of England 
    Nickname Curtmantle 
    Born 5 Mar 1133  Le Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Address:
    Le Mans-Nord-Campagne 
    Christened 25 Mar 1133  Le Mans, Sarthe, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Gender Male 
    Name Henry II of England Plantagenet 
    _AMTID 330126064854:1030:114017017 
    _FSFTID LYD7-TB9 
    _UID FECC83432A4F41D09A8B00DE801954EFF971 
    Died 6 Jul 1189  Chinon, Indre-et-Loire, Centre, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Address:
    château de Chinon 
    • The relationship between Henry and Richard finally dissolved into violence shortly before Henry's death. Philip held a peace conference in November 1188, making a public offer of a generous long-term peace settlement with Henry, conceding to his various territorial demands, if Henry would finally marry Richard and Alice and announce Richard as his recognised heir. Henry refused the proposal, whereupon Richard himself spoke up, demanding to be recognised as Henry's successor. Henry remained silent and Richard then publicly changed sides at the conference and gave formal homage to Philip in front of the assembled nobles.
      The papacy intervened once again to try to produce a last-minute peace deal, resulting in a fresh conference at La Ferté-Bernard in 1189. By now Henry was suffering from a bleeding ulcer that would ultimately prove fatal. The discussions achieved little, although Henry is alleged to have offered Philip that John, rather than Richard, could marry Alice, reflecting the rumours circulating over the summer that Henry was considering openly disinheriting Richard. The conference broke up with war appearing likely, but Philip and Richard launched a surprise attack immediately afterwards during what was conventionally a period of truce.
      Henry was caught by surprise at Le Mans but made a forced march north to Alençon, from where he could escape into the safety of Normandy. Suddenly, however, Henry turned back south towards Anjou, against the advice of his officials. The weather was extremely hot, the King was increasingly ill and he appears to have wanted to die peacefully in Anjou rather than fight yet another campaign. Henry evaded the enemy forces on his way south and collapsed in his castle at Chinon. Philip and Richard were making good progress, not least because it was now obvious that Henry was dying and that Richard would be the next king, and the pair offered negotiations. They met at Ballan, where Henry, only just able to remain seated on his horse, agreed to a complete surrender: he would do homage to Philip; he would give up Alice to a guardian and she would marry Richard at the end of the coming crusade; he would recognise Richard as his heir; he would pay Philip compensation, and key castles would be given to Philip as a guarantee.
      Henry was carried back to Chinon on a litter, where he was informed that John had publicly sided with Richard in the conflict. This desertion proved the final shock and he finally collapsed into a fever, regaining consciousness only for a few moments, during which he gave confession.
    Buried 8 Jul 1189  Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    • The King had wished to be interred at Grandmont Abbey in the Limousin, but the hot weather made transporting his body impractical and he was instead buried at the nearby Fontevraud Abbey.
    Notes 
    • Henry was the first of the Plantagenets, the name coming from thefactthat he was fond of wearing a spring of the broom-plant in hishelmet.From Enclopedia Britannica Online, article titled Henry II: 'bynameHENRY OF ANJOU, HENRY PLANTAGENET, HENRY FITZEMPRESS, OR HENRYCURTMANTLE(SHORT MANTLE) duke of Normandy (from 1150), count of Anjou(from 1151),duke of Aquitaine (from 1152), and king of England (from1154), whogreatly expanded his Anglo-French domains and strengthenedthe royaladministration in England. His quarrels with Thomas Becket,archbishop ofCanterbury, and with members of his family (his wife,Eleanor ofAquitaine, and such sons as Richard the Lion-Heart and JohnLackland)ultimately brought about his defeat. 'Henry II lived in an age ofbiographers and letter writers of genius.John of Salisbury, ThomasBecket, Giraldus Cambrensis, Walter Map,Peter of Blois, and others knewhim well and left their impressions.All agreed on his outstandingability and striking personality andalso recorded his errors and aspectsof his character that appearcontradictory, whereas modern historiansagree upon the difficulty ofreconciling its main features. Without deepreligious or moralconviction, Henry nevertheless was respected by threecontemporary saints, Aelred of Rievaulx, Gilbert ofSempringham, and Hughof Lincoln. Normally an approachable andfaithful friend and master, hecould behave with unreasonableinhumanity. His conduct and aims werealways self-centred, but he wasneither a tyrant nor an odious egoist.Both as man and ruler he lackedthe stamp of greatness that marked Alfredthe Great and William theConqueror. He seemed also to lack wisdom andserenity; and he had nocomprehensive view of the country's interest, noideals of kingship, no sympathetic care for hispeople. But if his reignis to be judged by its consequences forEngland, it undoubtedly standshigh in importance, and Henry, as itsmainspring, appears among the mostnotable of English kings.' HenryII was Count of Anjou (1151-1189)whose family emblem was the'plantegenet', a yellow flowering broom; Dukeof Normandy (1151-1189);Duke of Aquitane (1152-1189) and as King ofEngland (1154-1189), ruledan empire that stretched from the Tweed to thePyrenees. He was theFounder of the Angevin, or Plantagenet, line. Henrywas the first offourteen hereditary kings, who were later referred to inthe historyoracles as Plantagenets. He is more commonly known asFitzEmpress,Henry II Curtmantle, King of England. In spite of frequenthostilities with the French King, his ownfamily and rebellious Barons(culminating in the great revolt of1173-74) and his quarrel with ThomasBecket, Henry II maintainedcontrol over his possessions until shortlybefore his death. Henry II's judicial and administrative reforms,which increasedRoyal control and influence at the expense of the Barons,were ofgreat constitutional importance. Henry II Introduced trial byJury. Henry II, by marrying ELEANOR OF AQUITAINE immediately afterherdivorce from Louis VII, King of France, gained vast territoriesinFrance. Henry had lands reaching for 1000 miles, and it was thisvastdomain, which was called the Angevin Empire. In 1153 he invadedEngland and forced STEPHEN to acknowledge him ashis heir. As king herestored order to war-ravaged England, subduedthe barons, centralizedthe power of government in royalty, andstrengthened royal courts.Henry's desire to increase royal authoritybrought him into conflict withTHOMAS áA BECKET, whom he had made(1162) archbishop of Canterbury. Thequarrel, which focused largely onthe jurisdiction of the church courts,came to a head when Henryissued (1163) the Constitutions of CLARENDON,defining therelationship between church and state, and ended (1170) withBecket'smurder, for which Henry was forced by public indignation todopenance. During his reign he gained northern counties from Scotlandandincreased his French holdings. Henry II was also involved in familystruggles. Encouraged by theirmother and LOUIS VI of France, his threeoldest sons, Henry, RICHARDI, and Geoffrey, rebelled (1173-74) againsthim. The rebellioncollapsed, but at the time of Henry's death, Richardand the youngestson, JOHN, were in the course of another rebellion. Hewasunfortunate in love, relentlessly and romantically pursuing thehandof his wife, Eleanor, who became a selfish spoilt lady, and whoturnedher sons against their own father. Because of the rebellion bytheeldest son, Henry was crushed, and Eleanor was placed underhousearrest for fifteen years. The other brothers placed continualpressureon their father, in alliances with the King of France. Henrydied alonely and grief stricken man deserted by all of those he hadlovedand honored. Contemporaries: Louis VII (King of France, 1137-1180),Thomas Beckett(Archbishop of Canterbury), Pope Adrian IV, Frederick I(FrederickBarbarossa, Holy Roman Emperor, 1152-1190) Henry II, first ofthe Angevin kings, was one of the most effective ofall England'smonarchs. He came to the throne amid the anarchy ofStephen's reign andpromptly collared his errant barons. He refinedNorman government andcreated a capable, self-standing bureaucracy.His energy was equaled onlyby his ambition and intelligence. Henrysurvived wars, rebellion, andcontroversy to successfully rule one ofthe Middle Ages' most powerfulkingdoms. Henry was raised in the French province of Anjou and firstvisitedEngland in 1142 to defend his mother's claim to the disputedthrone ofStephen. His continental possessions were already vast beforehiscoronation: He acquired Normandy and Anjou upon the death ofhisfather in September 1151, and his French holdings more thandoubledwith his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitane (ex-wife of King LouisVII ofFrance). In accordance with the Treaty of Wallingford, asuccessionagreement signed by Stephen and Matilda in 1153, Henry wascrowned inOctober 1154. The continental empire ruled by Henry and hissonsincluded the French counties of Brittany, Maine, Poitou,Touraine,Gascony, Anjou, Aquitane, and Normandy. Henry was technically afeudalvassal of the king of France but, in reality, owned more territoryandwas more powerful than his French lord. Although King John(Henry'sson) lost most of the English holdings in France, English kingslaidclaim to the French throne until the fifteenth century. Henryalsoextended his territory in the British Isles in two significantways.First, he retrieved Cumbria and Northumbria form Malcom IV ofScotlandand settled the Anglo-Scot border in the North. Secondly,although hissuccess with Welsh campaigns was limited, Henry invadedIreland andsecured an English presence on the island. English and Normanbarons in Stephen's reign manipulated feudal law toundermine royalauthority; Henry instituted many reforms to weakentraditional feudalties and strengthen his position. Unauthorizedcastles built during theprevious reign were razed. Monetary paymentsreplaced military service asthe primary duty of vassals. TheExchequer was revitalized to enforceaccurate record keeping and taxcollection. Incompetent sheriffs werereplaced and the authority ofroyal courts was expanded. Henry empowereda new social class ofgovernment clerks that stabilized procedure - thegovernment couldoperate effectively in the king's absence and wouldsubsequently provesufficiently tenacious to survive the reign ofincompetent kings.Henry's reforms allowed the emergence of a body ofcommon law toreplace the disparate customs of feudal and county courts.Jury trialswere initiated to end the old Germanic trials by ordeal orbattle.Henry's systematic approach to law provided a common basisfordevelopment of royal institutions throughout the entire realm. Theprocess of strengthening the royal courts, however, yielded anunexpectedcontroversy. The church courts instituted by William theConqueror becamea safe haven for criminals of varying degree andability, for one infifty of the English population qualified asclerics. Henry wished totransfer sentencing in such cases to theroyal courts, as church courtsmerely demoted clerics to laymen.Thomas Beckett, Henry's close friendand chancellor since 1155, wasnamed Archbishop of Canterbury in June1162 but distanced himself fromHenry and vehemently opposed theweakening of church courts. Beckettfled England in 1164, but through theintervention of Pope Adrian IV(the lone English pope), returned in 1170.He greatly angered Henryby opposing the coronation of Prince Henry.Exasperated, Henryhastily and publicly conveyed his desire to be rid ofthe contentiousArchbishop - four ambitious knights took the king at hisword andmurdered Beckett in his own cathedral on December 29, 1170.Henryendured a rather limited storm of protest over the incident andthecontroversy passed. Henry's plans of dividing his myriad lands andtitles evoked treacheryfrom his sons. At the encouragement - andsometimes because of thetreatment - of their mother, they rebelledagainst their fatherseveral times, often with Louis VII of France astheir accomplice. Thedeaths of Henry the Young King in 1183 and Geoffreyin 1186 gave norespite from his children's rebellious nature; Richard,with theassistance of Philip II Augustus of France, attacked anddefeatedHenry on July 4, 1189 and forced him to accept a humiliatingpeace.Henry II died two days later, on July 6, 1189. A few quotes fromhistoric manuscripts shed a unique light on Henry,Eleanor, and theirsons. From Sir Winston Churchill Kt, 1675: 'Henry II Plantagenet, theveryfirst of that name and race, and the very greatest King thatEnglandever knew, but withal the most unfortunate . . . his deathbeingimputed to those only to whom himself had given life, hisungracioussons. . .' From Sir Richard Baker, A Chronicle of the Kings ofEngland:Concerning endowments of mind, he was of a spirit in thehighestdegree generous . . . His custom was to be always in action; forwhichcause, if he had no real wars, he would have feigned . . . Tohischildren he was both indulgent and hard; for out of indulgencehecaused his son henry to be crowned King in his own time; and outofhardness he caused his younger sons to rebel against him . . .Hemarried Eleanor, daughter of William Duke of Guienne, late wifeofLewis the Seventh of France.
    Person ID I6491  Work in progress june2018
    Last Modified 26 Jun 2018 

    Father Geoffrey V 'The Fair' PLANTAGENET, Duke of Normandy,   b. 24 Aug 1113, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Sep 1151, Eure-et-Loir, Le mans, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years) 
    Mother Empress Matilda OF NORMANDY,   b. CA 7 Feb 1102, Winchester, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 10 Sep 1169, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 67 years) 
    Married 22 May 1128  Le Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F3592  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Father Geoffrey V 'The Fair' PLANTAGENET, Duke of Normandy,   b. 24 Aug 1113, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Sep 1151, Eure-et-Loir, Le mans, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years) 
    Mother Empress Matilda,   b. 7 Feb 1102, Sutton, Courtenay, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 10 Sep 1167, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 65 years) 
    Married 3 Apr 1127  Winchester Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F17638  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Father Geoffrey V COUNT OF ANJOU HOUSE OF PLANTAGENET,   b. 24 Aug 1113, Anjou, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Sep 1151, Eure-Et-Loir, Le Mans, Maine, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 38 years) 
    Mother Empress Matilda PLANTAGENET, Queen of England,   b. 7 Feb 1102, Sutton Courtenay, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 10 Sep 1167, Braunschweig, Niedersachsen, Deutschland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 65 years) 
    Married 17 Jun 1128  Le Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F18203  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 1 Ida DE TOSNY, Countess of Norfolk,   b. Abt 1156, Norfolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Mar 1226, Norfolk, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 70 years) 
    Children 
     1. Prince William I PLANTAGENET, 3rd Earl of Salisbury,   b. Abt 1176, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Mar 1226, Salisbury Castle, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 50 years)
    Last Modified 30 Jun 2018 
    Family ID F17507  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Princess Eleanor OF AQUITAINE,   b. 6 Dec 1122, Poitiers, Vienne, Poitou-Charentes, Francia Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1 Apr 1204, Fontevrault, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 81 years) 
    Children 
     1. Eleanor OF ENGLAND QUEEN OF CASTILE
     2. John, King Of England,   b. 24 Dec 1166, Beaumont Palace, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Oct 1216, Newark Castle, Newark, Nottinghamshire Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 49 years)
     3. Richard I King of England,   b. 27 Sep 1157, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Apr 1199, Battlefield, Chalus, Haute Vienne, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 41 years)
     4. Geoffrey PLANTAGENET,   b. 23 Sep 1158,   d. 18 Aug 1186, Paris, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 27 years)
     5. King Henry PLANTAGENET,   b. 28 Feb 1155, London, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 11 Jun 1183, Castle of Mantel, Limoges, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 28 years)
     6. Prince William IX of England PLANTAGENET,   b. 24 Aug 1152, Le Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Apr 1156, Wallingford Castle, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 3 years)
     7. Philip PLANTAGENET,   b. 1160, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1160, Beaumont, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 0 years)
     8. Rey Ricardo I,   b. 9 agosto 1157, Palacio de Beaumont, oxford, Inglaterra Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 abril 1199, Limoges, Haute-Vienne, Limousin, Francia Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 42 years)
     9. William PLANTAGENET, 3rd Earl of Salisbury,   b. Abt 1173, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 7 Mar 1225/26, Masnsurah, Nile Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 53 years)
     10. Eleanor PLANTAGENET, Queen of Castile,   b. 13 Oct 1162, Domfront Castle, Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 25 Oct 1214, Las Huelgas, Burgos, Burgos, Spain Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 52 years)
     11. Herzogin Mathilde PLANTAGENET, von England,   b. 6 Jan 1156, Old Windsor, Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead, England, Vereinigtes Königreich Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Jun 1189, Braunschweig, Niedersachsen, Deutschland Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 33 years)
     12. King John PLANTAGENET,   b. 24 Dec 1166, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Oct 1216, Newark Castle, Newark-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 49 years)
    Last Modified 30 Jun 2018 
    Family ID F25866  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 3 Laurence de HAINAULT,   d. 9 Jun 1181 
    Children 
     1. Alix DE MONTMORENCY,   b. 1174, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 Feb 1221, Montfort-l'Amaury, Yvelines, District of the Paris Region, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 47 years)
     2. Mathieu II DE MONTMORENCY,   b. environ 1174, Montmorency, Seine-et-Oise, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location
    Last Modified 30 Jun 2018 
    Family ID F31583  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 4 Laurence de HAINAULT,   d. 9 Jun 1181 
    Children 
     1. Alix DE MONTMORENCY,   b. 1174, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 Feb 1221, Montfort-l'Amaury, Yvelines, District of the Paris Region, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 47 years)
     2. Mathieu II DE MONTMORENCY,   b. environ 1174, Montmorency, Seine-et-Oise, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location
    Last Modified 30 Jun 2018 
    Family ID F31634  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 5 Laurence de HAINAULT,   d. 9 Jun 1181 
    Children 
     1. Alix DE MONTMORENCY,   b. 1174, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 24 Feb 1221, Montfort-l'Amaury, Yvelines, District of the Paris Region, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 47 years)
     2. Mathieu II DE MONTMORENCY,   b. environ 1174, Montmorency, Seine-et-Oise, Île-de-France, France Find all individuals with events at this location
    Last Modified 30 Jun 2018 
    Family ID F31823  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 6 Eleanore OF AQUITAINE,   b. 1121, Bordeaux, Aquitaine Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1 Apr 1204, Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 83 years) 
    Married 18 May 1152  Bordeaux, Gironde, Aquitaine, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [1, 2
    Address:
    Cathedral of Saint-André 
    • They may have been married on the 11th of May.
    Children 
     1. William PLANTAGENET,   b. 17 Aug 1152, Le Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Apr 1156, Wallingford Castle, Wallingford, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 3 years)
     2. Matilda PLANTAGENET,   b. 1156, Windsor Castle, Windsor, Berkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 28 Jun 1189  (Age 33 years)
     3. Richard 'The Lionheart' PLANTAGENET,   b. 8 Sep 1157, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 6 Apr 1199, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 41 years)
     4. Geoffrey PLANTAGENET,   b. Abt 1159, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Aug 1186, Seine, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 27 years)
     5. Philip PLANTAGENET,   b. England Find all individuals with events at this location
     6. John 'Lackland' PLANTAGENET,   b. 24 Dec 1166, Oxford, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 19 Oct 1216, Newark Castle, Newark, Nottinghamshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 49 years)
     7. Joan PLANTAGENET,   b. Oct 1165, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 4 Sep 1199, Fontevraud-l'Abbaye, Maine-et-Loire, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 33 years)
     8. Alianor 'Eleanor' PLANTAGENET,   b. 13 Oct 1162, Domfront, Orne, Basse-Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 31 Oct 1214  (Age 52 years)
    Last Modified 30 Jun 2018 
    Family ID F3562  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 7 Rosamond DE CLIFFORD,   b. Abt 1137, Clifford Castle, Clifford, Herefordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1176, Woodstock, Oxfordshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 39 years) 
    Married Y  [1
    Children 
     1. William LONGESPEE,   b. 1173, Le Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Between 7 Mar 1225 and 1226, Salisbury Castle, Salisbury, Wiltshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 52 years)
     2. Geoffrey PLANTAGENET,   b. 1159,   d. 1212  (Age 53 years)
     3. Peter PLANTAGENET
    Last Modified 30 Jun 2018 
    Family ID F3576  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart