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King Henry I, of England[1]

Male 1068 - 1135  (67 years)


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  • Name Henry I  
    Title King 
    Suffix of England 
    Born 1068  Selby, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Gender Male 
    _AMTID 330126066303:1030:114017017 
    _UID 9D3A2826B81048AB811AF62A276781FCA69A 
    Died 1 Dec 1135  Saint-Denis-le-Fermont, Basse-Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Notes 
    • * BIOGRAPHY
      Henry was born in 1068 in Selby, Yorkshire, the only child ofWilliam the Conqueror to be born in England. He was also the only son tobe born in 'purple' as only two years previously William had become kingof England. As the youngest child he was his mother's favourite and whenshe died she left him her English estates.

      He had a good education, learning to read and write Latin as wellas English and Law. In 1086 he was knighted by his father. When hisfather died in 1087 his brother Robert received the duchy of Normandywhile William II Rufus became king of England. Henry, having estates inboth territories like so many other Norman barons, had to maintain hisrelations with two overlords.

      When in 1100 William Rufus mysteriously died, Henry was elected tosucceed as king of England and on 6 August he was crowned in WestminsterAbbey. His first act as king was to restore Anselm as archbishop ofCanterbury, then he started to look for a bride. For his queen heselected Edith of Scotland, daughter of King Malcolm Canmore and, moreimportantly, of St. Margaret of Wessex who was a descendant of the kingsof England prior to the Conquest. In honour of the king's mother,Matilda of Flanders, Edith changed her name to Matilda. Restoring Anselmdid not ensure peace in the kingdom as he refused to do homage to theking, claiming to hold the church estates in the name of the pope.Anselm was then forced into exile, and peace was restored only in 1107when the king's sister Adela, countess of Blois, found a solutionacceptable to both: bishops would pay homage to the king and the kingwould allow clerical investiture.

      When Henry's brother Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy returnedfrom Crusade he proved such a bad ruler that the barons in Normandyrevolted and asked for Henry's support. Henry was also motivated by awish to eliminate the continuing threat from Robert and the drain on hisfiscal resources from the annual payment to him, so in 1105 he led anexpeditionary force across the English Channel. On the morning of 28September 1106, exactly 40 years after their father had landed inEngland, the decisive battle between his two sons took place in thesmall village of Tinchebray. Robert's army was defeated and he wascaptured. Robert was imprisoned and Henry became duke of Normandy.

      Henry was a good diplomat; even though troubles within Normandyand with France continued, he made a successful alliance when his onlydaughter Matilda married the Emperor Heinrich V in 1114. In 1119 hisonly son William went to the continent and married a daughter of thecount of Anjou. On the journey home the 'White Ship' was wrecked andWilliam with his entourage drowned. Henry's wife had died in 1118, buthe waited until 1122 before taking a second wife, Adeliza of Louvain. Hehad fathered two legitimate and probably nineteen illegitimate children,but his second marriage remained childless.

      In 1126 Henry designated his daughter, the widowed EmpressMatilda, as his successor; and in 1127 he selected Geoffrey, count ofAnjou, as her second husband even though he was ten years younger thanMatilda. Henry travelled a great deal between England and Normandy, andon 1 August 1135 he left England for the last time. He died 1 December1135 at St. Denis-le-Fermont near Gisors. His body was taken back toEngland and buried at Reading Abbey.

      From Encylcopedia Britannica Onlines, article entitled Henry I 'Also,HENRY BEAUCLERC (GOOD SCHOLAR), French HENRI BEAUCLERC youngestandablest of William I the Conqueror's sons, who as king ofEngland(1100-35) strengthened the crown's executive powers and, likehisfather, also ruled Normandy (from1106).' 'Henry I was a skillful,intelligent monarch who achieved peace inEngland, relative stability inNormandy, and notable administrativeadvances on both sides of theChannel. Under Henry, the Anglo-Normanstate his father had created wasreunited. Royal justices began makingsystematic tours of the Englishshires, but, although hisadministrative policies were highly efficient,they were notinfrequently regarded as oppressive. His reign marked asignificantadvance from the informal, personal monarchy of former timestowardthe bureaucratized state that lay in the future. It also markedashift from the wide-ranging imperialism of earlier Norman leaderstoconsolidation and internal development. In the generationsbeforeHenry's accession, Norman dukes, magnates, and adventurershadconquered southern Italy, Sicily, Antioch, and England. Henry wonhismajor battles but preferred diplomacy or bribery to the risks ofthebattlefield. Subduing Normandy in 1106, he contented himselfwithkeeping domestic peace, defending his Anglo-Norman stateagainstrebellion and invasion, and making alliances withneighbouringprinces.'
    Person ID I7903  Work in progress june2018
    Last Modified 27 Jun 2010 

    Father William I 'The Conqueror' OF NORMANDY, King of England,   b. 14 Oct 1024, Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 9 Sep 1087, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age 62 years) 
    Mother Matilda OF FLANDERS,   b. Abt 1031, Vlaanderen, Belgique Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 2 Nov 1083  (Age ~ 52 years) 
    Married Abt 1051  Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location 
    Family ID F2413  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Married 11 Nov 1100  London, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom Find all individuals with events at this location  [2, 3
    Address:
    Westminster 
    Children 
     1. Robert DE CAEN, Earl of Gloucester,   d. 31 Oct 1147, Bristol, Avon, England Find all individuals with events at this location
     2. Elizabeth,   b. Abt 1095, Talby, Yorkshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown
     3. William the ATHELING,   b. Bef 5 Aug 1103, Winchester, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 25 Nov 1120, English Channel Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age > 17 years)
     4. Euphamia,   b. Jul 1101, Winchester, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. Yes, date unknown
     5. Richard,   d. 25 Nov 1120
     6. William DE TRACY,   b. Aft 1090,   d. Yes, date unknown
     7. Gilbert,   b. Abt 1130,   d. 1142  (Age ~ 12 years)
     8. Constance
     9. Alice
    Last Modified 30 Jun 2018 
    Family ID F3525  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 2 Matilda OF SCOTLAND,   b. Abt 1079, Dumferline, Scotland Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 1 May 1118, Westminster Palace, Westminster, England Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 39 years) 
    Married 11 Nov 1100  London, Middlesex, England, United Kingdom Find all individuals with events at this location  [1
    Address:
    Westminster Abbey 
    Children 
     1. Empress Matilda OF NORMANDY,   b. CA 7 Feb 1102, Winchester, Hampshire, England Find all individuals with events at this location,   d. 10 Sep 1169, Rouen, Seine-Maritime, Haute-Normandie, France Find all individuals with events at this location  (Age ~ 67 years)
    Last Modified 30 Jun 2018 
    Family ID F3600  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart

    Family 3 Nest FERCH RHYS,   d. Aft 1136 
    cohabit Abt 1102  [3
    Children 
     1. Henry FITZHENRY,   b. Abt 1105,   d. 1157  (Age ~ 52 years)
    Last Modified 30 Jun 2018 
    Family ID F3637  Group Sheet  |  Family Chart